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[已转移到维基条目] [Wiki条目]XtremLab项目介绍

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发表于 2013-4-12 12:32:25 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 arthur200000 于 2013-5-5 17:26 编辑

链接:http://equn.com/wiki/XtremLab
原因:未翻译。

以下是原文。(翻译完成略)
用的是Wiki代码
@昂宿星团人 改标记啦

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发表于 2013-4-12 14:00:06 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 SaintLaser 于 2013-4-14 18:35 编辑

== Quick Summary ==
==简明总结==
Desktop grid (DG) systems use the idle computingpower of many volunteered desktop PC's to support large-scale computation andstorage. For over a decade, DG systems have been the largest and the mostpowerful distributed computing systems, offering a plethora of computing powerat a fraction of the cost of supercomputers. The volunteer desktopsparticipating in DG projects are volatile and heterogeneous, but there islittle detailed information about their volatility and heterogeneity. Yet thischaracterization is essential for the simulation and modelling of such systems.We are conducting a project whose short-term goal is to obtain detailed pictureof the DG landscape, and whose long-term goal is to create a testbed fornetwork and distributed computing research. To this end, we have deployedXtremLab, which is a BOINC-based project that actively measures host CPU andnetwork availability on volunteer desktops. The resulting resource measurementdata and characterization will be useful for a broad range of research areas,including distributed and peer-to-peer computing, and fault tolerance. Ourlong-term goal is create a large-scale testbed for networking and distributedcomputing research. Ultimately, we believe the results will help broaden therange of applications that can utilize desktop grid systems, and acceleratediscovery in a variety of scientific domains.
桌面网格(DG)系统使用众多志愿者桌面电脑的闲置计算能力来支持大规模计算与储存。在过去的的十数年中,桌面网格系统已经发展成为最大、最强的分布式计算系统,它以远远少于超级计算机的成本提供了海量的计算能力。参加桌面网格项目的志愿者电脑互有差异,提供的算力也不稳定,我们也没有关于这种不稳定性和差异性的详细信息。然而,这些信息对于此类系统的模拟和组建至关重要。本项目的短期目标是弄清楚桌面网格的总体情况,长期目标是创造一个网络与分布式计算的实验平台。为此,我们开发了基于BOINC平台的项目XtremLab,用以主动测量志愿者桌面电脑CPU与网络通讯能力。该项目总结出的结果与特性会在分布式计算、点对点计算以及错误控制等广泛的研究领域中发挥作用。我们的长期目标是创造一个网络与分布式计算的实验平台。【译注:之前已经提到了长期目标】。我们相信,最终本项目的结果将有助于扩大桌面网格系统的使用范围,促进各个科学领域产生新的发现。

== Background ==
==背景==
Since the late 1990's, DG systems, such as
SETI@Home, have beenthe largest and most powerful distributed computing systems in the world,offering an abundance of computing power at a fraction of the cost ofdedicated, custom-built supercomputers. Many applications from a wide range ofscientific domains -- including computational biology, climate prediction,particle physics, and astronomy -- have utilized the computing power offered byDG systems. DG systems have allowed these applications to execute at a hugescale, often resulting in major scientific discoveries that would otherwise hadnot been possible.
20世纪90年代末起,桌面网格系统,比如SETI@Home,已经发展成为世界上最大、最强的分布式计算系统,以定制超级计算机的成本的零头提供了充裕的计算能力。各个科学领域涌现的诸多应用——包括生物学计算、气候预测、粒子物理学、天文学——都使用了桌面网格系统提供的计算能力。桌面网格系统允许这些应用大规模运行,带来了许多原本不可能实现的重大科学发现。

The computing resources that power DG systemsare shared with the owners of the machines. Because the resources arevolunteered, utmost care is taken to ensure that the DG tasks do not obstructthe activities of each machine's owner; a DG task is suspended or terminatedwhenever the machine is in use by another person. As a result, DG resources arevolatile in the sense that any number of factors can cause the task of a DGapplication to not complete. These factors include mouse or keyboard activity,the execution of other user applications, machine reboots, or hardwarefailures. Moreover, DG resources are heterogeneous in the sense that theydiffer in operating systems, CPU speeds, network bandwidth, memory and disksizes. Consequently, the design of systems and applications that utilize thesesystem is challenging.
维持桌面网格系统运行的计算资源由志愿者们的计算机提供,因为提供这些资源是志愿提供的的,我们必须确保桌面网格任务不会妨碍每一个计算机所有者的活动;桌面网格任务会在计算机忙碌时暂停或终止。这就造成了桌面网格的不稳定性,因为许多因素都可以导致桌面网格应用的任务无法完成【译注:比如一直挖BitcoinLOL】。这些因素包括使用键盘和鼠标、使用其他应用、重启计算机、硬件错误。此外,桌面网格计算资源有差异性——不同的操作系统【译注:从第三世界还在使用的Windows 98到欧美最新的Windows8,各个版本的LinuxUnixMac OSPS3,现在连带着ARM处理器的Android设备跟还在使用ARM11的树莓派——2013年初,Asteroid@Home——都能进来参一脚】、CPU速度、网络带宽、内存与硬盘大小。【译注:原文还遗漏了处理器、协处理器型号各有不同】。这最终对整个系统的设计及其应用的运行而言是一项严峻的挑战。

== Goals ==
==目标==
The long-term overall goal of XtremLab is tocreate a testbed for networking and distributed computing research. Thistestbed will allow for computing experiments at unprecedented scale (i.e.,thousands of nodes or more) and accuracy (i.e., nodes that are at the"ends" of the Internet).
XtremLab的长期整体目标是创造一个网络与分布式计算的实验平台。这个实验平台将会允许空前规模的计算试验(即数千个节点或者更多)并且非常准确(就是在网络的“另一边”的节点)
Currently, the short-term goal of XtremLab is todetermine a more detailed picture of the Internet computing landscape bymeasuring the network and CPU availability of many machines. While DG systemsconsist of volatile and heterogeneous computing resources, it unknown exactlyhow volatile and heterogeneous these computing resources are. Previouscharacterization studies on Internet-wide computing resources have not takeninto account causes of volatility such as mouse and keyboard activity, otheruser applications, and machine reboots. Moreover, these studies often onlyreport coarse aggregate statistics, such as the mean time to failure ofresources. Yet, detailed resource characterization is essential for determiningthe utility of DG systems for various types of applications. Also thischaracterization is a prerequisite for the simulation and modelling of DGsystems in a research area where many results are obtained via simulation,which allow for controlled and repeatable experimentation.
最近,XtremLab的短期目标是通过测量大量电脑的网络通讯与CPU的可用性以推算网络计算资源分布情况。当桌面网格系统由不稳定并且互有差异的计算机组成时,我们不知道这些计算机提供的资源到底有多么的不稳定,也不知道差异到底有多大。之前我们在网络上进行的计算资源研究并没有统计鼠标与键盘的活动、使用其他应用和重启计算机等因素。而且,之前这些研究只是粗略的汇总统计,比如计算资源计算错误的平均时间。我们需要要大量志愿者计算机的详细特点以推断出各种类型的应用是如何使用桌面网格系统的,因为许多桌面网格的应用需要通过模拟——即受控制的可重复实验——获得计算结果,这些特点就是模拟和组建桌面网格系统及其应用的先决条件。
For example, one direct application of themeasurements is to create a better BOINC CPU scheduler, which is the softwarecomponent responsible for distributing tasks of the application to BOINCclients. We plan to use our measurements to run trace-driven simulations of theBOINC CPU scheduler in effort to identify ways it can be improved, and fortesting new CPU schedulers before they are widely deployed.
举例来说,有一个应用直接测量BOINC志愿者计算机的CPU调度情况,这样服务器软件就能根据情况的不同对各个BOINC客户端发放适合的分布式工作包。我们计划模拟BOINCCPU的调度情况并进行调查记录(trace-driven),找出改进办法,保证每一个新的CPU在广泛使用前都能接受我们的测试。
【译注:最后一整句话感觉没看懂。】
Approach
方法
We conduct availability measurements bysubmitting real compute-bound tasks to the BOINC DG system. These tasks areexecuted only when the host is idle, as determined by the user's preferencesand controlled the BOINC client. These tasks continuously perform computationand periodically record their computation rates to file. These files arecollected and assembled to create a continuous time series of CPU availabilityfor each participating host. Utmost care will be taken to ensure the privacy ofparticipants. Our simple, active trace method allows us to measure exactly whatactual compute power a real, compute-bound application would be able toexploit. Compared to other passive measurement techniques, our method is not assusceptible to OS idiosyncracies (e.g. with process scheduling) and takes intoaccount keyboard and mouse activity, and host load, all of which directlyimpact application execution.
我们为BOINC桌面网格系统的计算密集型任务提供了适合测量方式,这些任务接受BOINC客户端的控制,根据用户的设置仅在计算机空闲的时候运行。这些任务会持续运行并定期记录任务的完成度,产生的统计结果随后被我们收集、统计并整理出每个志愿者计算机的CPU情况与每个任务完成时间。我们会尽力保护志愿者的隐私。我们简易的主动追踪法可以辨别用来完成计算密集型任务的计算机资源是哪些。与其他被动测量手段相比,我们的办法不易受操作系统特质(计算调度)、计算机负载和其他应用程序的影响,也不会记录鼠标与键盘的活动。
【译注】第一句话跟最后一句话不好翻译啊,感觉不太对。

== Impact ==
==影响==
The results of this research will be useful todistributed computing research and other fields in many of ways. First, thetrace data will enable accurate simulation and modelling of DG systems. Forexample, the traces could be used either to directly drive simulationexperiments or to create generative probability models of resourceavailability, which in turn can be used by simulators to explore a wide rangeof hypothetical scenarios.
XtremLab的研究结果对研究分布式计算与其他领域有诸多助益。首先,跟踪数据会使桌面网格系统的模拟和建立更加精确。举例来说,跟踪的结果可以直接驱动模拟试验或者创建可用计算机资源的宏观模型,进而可以被模拟器用于探索各种可能存在的情况。
【译注:最后一句话没看懂是什么意思】
Second, because the traces will contain thetemporal structure of availability, the traces will enable the assessment ofthe utility of DG systems for a wide range of applications. Currently, therange of applications that utilize DG systems effectively has been limited toapplications with loosely-coupled tasks that are independent of one another;the volatility and heterogeneity of DG resources makes the execution oftightly-coupled applications with complex task dependencies extremelychallenging. With the traces, we could conduct a cost-benefit analysis for awide range of applications; specifically, we could determine the limitationsthat prevent certain types of applications from utilizing DG systemseffectively, and suggest new research directions to address these limitations.
其次,这些结果可以用来评估各种应用对计算机资源的使用情况。最近,能够有效利用桌面网格系统所提供的计算机资源的应用只有独立的松散耦合的应用【译注:大概就是指各个任务包直接的结果不会相互影响?】;计算机资源的不稳定性和差异性使得运行互相关联的、有复杂任务的紧密耦合应用非常困难。有了XtremLab的跟踪信息,我们可以找出某些应用使用桌面网格资源的效率瓶颈,并建议对这些瓶颈展开新的研究。
In addition, we believe our measurements couldbe useful for other sub-domains in computer science such as fault tolerance,peer-to-peer computing, and Grid computing. For example, one issue relevant tothe fault tolerance research community is how often resources crash and why.The data we collect will reflect the time to failure for each desktop resourceand thus be a valuable data set for those researchers. We will make the tracespublicly available to all these research communities.
此外,我们相信我们的研究对于其他计算机科学的分支领域——错误控制、点对点计算、网格计算等——有一些帮助。举例来说,错误控制研究方面有一个问题是计算机资源当机的频繁程度与原因,我们会收集计算机资源错误的数据并对外公开这些数据,这对错误控制研究很有帮助。
Finally, we believe the results of this projectwill help improve performance and broaden the set of applications that can takeadvantage DG systems. Currently, only applications with independent,compute-bound tasks can use desktop resources efficiently. We hope that themeasurements collect in the near term will be useful in evaluating techniquesfor broaden the set of DG application to ones that are morecommunication-intensive and tightly coupled, for example.
最后,我们相信XtremLab项目的研究结果能够提高桌面网格系统中各种应用的性能,拓展桌面网格的使用范围。近期,只有一个发布独立的计算密集型任务的应用能够高效的使用桌面网格系统。我们希望近期获得的数据能帮助我们建立一套广泛适用评估技术,例如用于评估那些紧密联系、紧密耦合的任务。
== Past Work ==
==过去的工作==
We have previously conducted a number of relatedresearch efforts. First, we measured and characterized several DG systems atthe University of California at San Diego and the University of Paris-Sud. Weobtained several months of traces of the availability of hundreds of desktopPC's within these organizations. We then characterized the DG systems by obtainingseveral aggregate and per-host statistics. This characterization formed thebasis for a model describing the the utility of the DG systems for differentapplications, and for developing efficient ways of scheduling tasks to DGresources. So that others could use our gathered trace data sets, we created anan online DG trace archive publicly accessible at
http://vs25.lri.fr:4320/dg. One limitation of this work, which we address in the XtremLab project,is that no measurements were taken of home desktop PC's, which contributesignificantly to Internet-wide DG projects.
我们过去进行了一系列的相关研究工作。首先,我们在加利福尼亚州大学-圣克鲁斯分校(University of California at SanDiego)
巴黎第十一大 (University of Paris-Sud)测量几个桌面网格系统并赋予特性,获得了那些系统中数百台桌面电脑的共工作数据。通过汇总这些特性我们可以建立一个模型,用来表示桌面网格系统下各个应用是如何工作的,令桌面网格系统更有效的制定任务。其他人也可以使用我们收集数据的办法,我们建立了一个联网的桌面网格系统的公共资料库,网址是http://vs25.lri.fr:4320/dg。这个资料库有一个缺点,就是没有为整个桌面网格系统做出显著贡献的家用台式电脑的数据。
== The XtremLab Team ==
==XtremLab小组==
The members of the XtremLab team belong to theLaboratoire de Recherche en Informatique (LRI, i.e., computer sciencelaboratory) of the University of Paris-Sud, XI. In particular, Mr. Paul Malecotis a graduate student interested in distributed and parallel computing, and isthe primary developer of XtremLab. Dr. Derrick Kondo (
http://www.lri.fr/~dkondo/) and Dr. Gilles Fedak both serve as academic advisors for the project.Dr. Derrick Kondo is an INRIA post-doctoral fellow interested in the simulationand modelling of large-scale distributed systems. Dr. Gilles Fedak ( http://www.lri.fr/~fedak/) is an INRIA research scientist and is interested in the design andimplementation of distributed systems. Professor Franck Cappello is thedirector of the project and the computer science laboratory.
XtremLab的成员隶属于
巴黎第十一大学的计算机科学实验室 (Laboratoirede Recherche en Informatique LRI) 。特别的,Paul Malecot先生是一个对分布式计算、平行计算有浓厚兴趣的在校硕士研究生,是XtremLab的主要开发人员。Derrick Kondo博士(http://www.lri.fr/~dkondo/)Gilles Fedak博士是该项目的学术顾问。Derrick Kondo博士是法国国家信息与自动化研究所(Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en AutomatiqueINRIA)的博士后,他对大规模分布式系统的模拟和建设很感兴趣。Gilles Fedak博士(http://www.lri.fr/~fedak/)是法国国家信息与自动化研究所的研究员,对分布式系统的设计与运行有兴趣。Franck Cappello教授是计算机中心和本项目的主管。
The XtremLab project is funded by the InstitutNational de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (INRIA), which is the non-profitnational French institution for computer science research.
XtremLab项目由法国国家信息与自动化研究所提供资金支持,该组织是法国进行计算机科学研究的非盈利组织。

点评

校对可能会有点痛苦,一是文章本身比较长,二是翻译比较水。  发表于 2013-4-15 10:30

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昂宿星团人 + 27 篇幅不小啊,辛苦啦(*¯︶¯*)

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发表于 2013-6-3 10:54:45 | 显示全部楼层

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