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[已完成翻译] 8个能在你电脑上运行的很酷的科学项目

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发表于 2010-9-23 10:23:54 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
来源:http://boinc.berkeley.edu/dev/forum_thread.php?id=6063
原载:TechNewsDaily - http://www.technewsdaily.com/8-cool-science-projects-that-can-run-right-on-your-home-computer-1270/
标题:8 Cool Science Projects That Can Run Right on Your Home Computer - 8个能在你电脑上运行的很酷的科学项目
作者:Adam Hadhazy, TechNewsDaily Staff Write
日期:2010年9月20日
概要:以八个项目为例,全面深入的介绍了志愿者计算的背景和发展情况。

有愿意帮助翻译的,请直接回帖(可以先占座,再翻译或编辑)
发表于 2010-12-17 10:54:48 | 显示全部楼层
每天翻一点,今天是:
PAGE 1
8 Cool Science Projects That Can Run Right on Your Home Computer
8个很酷的能够在你的家用电脑上运行的科学项目
Want to help search for aliens and fight diseases right from your home computer?
你有没有想过参与寻找外星人以及战胜疾病这样科学项目,而只需通过你的家用电脑?
A cornucopia of "volunteer computing" projects let you do that and more by donating some of the spare computational power on your desktop or laptop.
现在,琳琅满目的“志愿计算”项目可以让你做到你所想象的一切,甚至超出你的想象,而仅仅只需将你的台式机和笔记本的闲置的计算力贡献出来。
With these projects, rather than a giant, booked-up supercomputer crunching on a massive data set, thousands of regular ol' computers tackle a scientific problem that is broken up into piecemeal "jobs."
通过这些项目,与那些巨大的、满载的超级计算机处理巨大数据集不同,单一的科学问题被打散成一个个小的任务,分发给成千上万的普通的“旧”电脑来进行处理。
"Volunteer computing doesn’t get a single job done any faster [than a supercomputer], but it gets a whole lot of jobs done faster in a given time," said David Anderson, a research scientist at the University of California, Berkeley. "These projects encourage people to think more and learn more about science."
“志愿计算并不能将一个单一的任务(比一个超级计算机)更快地完成,但是它能将一个整体的任务在给定的时间内更快的完成”,加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校的Davia Anderson介绍说,“这些项目能够鼓励人们加深对科学的了解。”
Anderson founded and leads a program called BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing) that powers most science-related volunteer computing projects, many of which carry an "@home" suffix.
Anderson 启动并领导着称为BOINC(Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing,伯克利开放式网格计算)的项目,这个项目支持了大部分的科学相关的志愿计算项目,大多数都带有“@home”的后缀。
Often called "citizen science," this form of distributed computing has continued to catch on since it debuted in 1999 with the alien-seeking SETI@home project, which Anderson still directs.
这种被俗称为“市民科学”的分布式计算形式从1999年初次登场的寻找外星文明的SETI@home的项目以来就一直在继续,目前Anderson仍旧在主持该项目。
Now over five and a half million computers around the world have one or more of the nearly 70 BOINC-enabled projects running on them. This network boasts a combined computing power of about three petaflops, or three quadrillion "floating point operations" – a calculation, essentially – per second, for a performance that beats the world's fastest supercomputer, currently the Cray Jaguar at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tenn.
目前世界上总计超过550万台计算机至少参与了70多个基于BOINC的项目中的1个甚至更多。这个计算网路总计提供了约3千万亿次/秒的浮点计算速度,这个速度足够击败世界上最快的超级计算机之一:安装在田纳西州橡树岭国家实验室的Cray Jaguar。
To get your computer signed up to do some science, first download a free program from the websites for the projects of interest. These data-devouring applications work on Windows, Mac or Linux operating systems. The applications can run in the background while you use your computers or they can make good use of your machine's idle time.
要让你的电脑登记并开始做一些科学的事儿,首先你需要从你所感兴趣的项目的网站上下载一个免费的程序。这些“吞吃数据”的程序可以运行在Windows,Mac或者是Linux系统上。这些程序能够在你使用电脑的时候在后台运行,充分利用你的机器的空闲时间。
BOINC automatically detects a computer's speed and memory to give it a job that will not gum up the works and detract from a user's experience, Anderson said.
“BOINC能够自动地检测你的电脑的运算速度和内存,从而给你的电脑分配合适的任务,以免造成麻烦或者是拖慢你的电脑。”Anderson如是说。
Eventually, Anderson envisions tapping into all the extra processing power and memory on smartphones and tablet computers. So-called "virtual machine" programs that harmonize how computers handle jobs regardless of their make and model are also on BOINC's horizon, Anderson said.
Anderson的终极目的是希望能够发掘所有的“多余计算力”和内存空间,甚至是智能手机和平板电脑。一种被称为“虚拟机”的程序能够使得电脑统一处理任务而不必担心他们的平台或者型号,这种程序也在BOINC的未来计划中。Anderson介绍说。
Anderson hopes to involve both more scientists and computer owners in the effort. "There's a billion computers out there and that numbers' growing," he said. These machines, Anderson said, could provide the extra computational oomph needed to dramatically advance fields of science ranging from medicine to astrophysics.
Anderson希望能够号召更多的科学家和电脑拥有者加入到这样的努力中。“世界上有成千上万的电脑,而且数量还在不断增长”,他说,“这些机器,能够提供大步推进科学领域研究,包括从医药到天文学的,无与伦比的计算魅力。”
Here is a look at eight of the most interesting, important or unusual volunteer science-related computing projects going on right now. (Stay tuned: TechNewsDaily will soon put together a list of "active" citizen science projects for personal computers that make scientific discovery an interactive, game-like experience.)
这里列举了8个在运行的最酷,最重要,最不同寻常的科学研究型志愿计算项目(持续关注XXX,你将会看到科学发现是怎样成为互动性的游戏一般的体验的。)

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发表于 2010-12-24 09:51:41 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 nekoko 于 2010-12-24 09:55 编辑

PAGE2
Einstein@home

This citizen project made news earlier this year when it announced in the journal Science the discovery of a previously unknown, unusual variety of radio pulsar. Pulsars are the ultradense, rapidly spinning remnants of giant stars that send out a beam of radiation through space like a lighthouse.
这个公众项目在今年早些时候发布新闻说,他们在Science杂志上宣称发现了以前未知的,不同寻常的类型的射电脉冲星。脉冲星是巨大恒星残留的残骸,具有超高的密度,并急速旋转。他们就如同宇宙中的灯塔一样发射射线束穿过宇宙空间。
The finding represents the "first genuine astronomical discovery by a public volunteer distributed computing project," according to a statement by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, which hosts the project along with the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
这个发现代表着“首个由公共志愿分布式计算项目造就的真实的天文学发现”。同Wisconsin-Milwaukee(威斯康辛密尔沃基)大学一同主持该项目的Max Planck引力物理研究院发表声明如是说。
Back in 2005, scientists originally launched Einstein@home to search for gravitational waves that Albert Einstein thought up almost one hundred years ago as part of his general theory of relativity.
早在2005年,科学家就独创地启动了Einstein@home项目,以寻找引力波的存在,一种由爱因斯坦在大约100年前作为其相对论的一部分而提出的构想。
Physicists think even the largest of these waves in spacetime caused by the movement of mass – such as a pair of neutron stars orbiting each other – peter out to the subtlest of ripples by the time they reach Earth. As such, a gravitational has not been directly detected – yet.
物理学家们认为,实际上大部分的存在于时空中的这种波是由(大)质量的移动而引起,比如中子环绕双星,在行进的过程中不断地衰减,当到达地球的时候就成为了微弱的涟漪。正因如此,引力波还没有被直接观测到。
To remedy that, Einstein@home lends a hand in sifting through reams of data collected by Caltech's Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO).
为了进行校正补偿,Einstein@home帮助在LIGO(加利福尼亚理工激光干涉引力波天文望远镜)收集下的海量的数据中筛选有用的信息。
Since March of last year, the Einstein@home project has also searched for radio pulsars in data gleaned from the biggest radio dish in the world, the 1,000-foot (305-meter) Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico.
从去年3月份以来,Einstein@home项目同时也在从位于Puerto Rico的Aercibo望远镜上收集的数据中寻找脉冲星。这个世界上最大的射电“盘子”直径高达1,000英尺,约合305米。
Einstein@home presently makes use of around a quarter million computers in 192 countries. Like many of the project programs, users can pull up a visualization or a screensaver that reflects the status of the pulsar search.
Einstein@home现在使用了大约四分之一百万(25万)台分布于192个国家的计算机。和大多数这样的项目程序一样,用户可以打开一个可视的图形界面或者是屏幕保护程序,其中反应了脉冲星搜寻的状态。

volunteer-computing-science-einstein-1-02.jpg
发表于 2010-12-28 09:37:11 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 nekoko 于 2010-12-28 10:41 编辑

Malariacontrol.net
控制疟疾的项目
Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease, infects several hundred million people a year, killing at least a million of them. Malariacontrol.net models the dynamics of the pathogen's spread in sub-Saharan Africa, the hot bed of the pandemic. The program even accounts for the range of human responses to the illness, such as going to a clinic at the first sign of a fever or not seeking treatment at all.
疟疾,一种以蚊子为媒介传播的疾病,每年感染数亿人,并至少造成一百万人的死亡。Malariacontrol.net 使用模型来模拟这种疾病在撒哈拉以南非洲(这种疾病的温床之地)的蔓延的动态。这个程序同时也考虑到了人们对于这个疾病反应的范畴,比如在有发热迹象的时候去诊所就医,或者是根本没有寻求任何的处理。
The simulations should help epidemiologists and clinicians figure out what prevention and intervention strategies, including mosquito nets, insecticide sprays and medicines, might best turn back the malarial tide.
这个模拟应该能够帮助流行病学家和临床医生理解怎样的预防个干预措施能够最好地力挽疟疾的狂澜,包括捕蚊网,杀虫喷剂和药物等。
Since 2005, some 45,000 people have contributed computer time, and the results have led to the publication of scientific papers. The Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute is behind the effort, and financial support comes from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
从2005年以来,大约45000人贡献出了他们的计算机时间,并且模拟的结果已经发表成科学论文。瑞士热带和公共健康研究所主持着这个项目,项目的资金来源于Bill & Melinda Gates基金会。

volunteer-computing-science-malaria-2-02.jpg
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发表于 2010-12-28 09:51:46 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2010-12-28 09:53:27 | 显示全部楼层
回复 5# merlinl

不是基友会吗?
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发表于 2010-12-28 10:19:19 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2010-12-28 10:40:57 | 显示全部楼层

打错了……而且是双拼打错了

点评

看到老坑还没有校对就发现了这里无节操的东西。。。  发表于 2013-5-5 17:03
发表于 2011-1-4 17:10:48 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 nekoko 于 2011-1-6 11:44 编辑

PAGE 4

SETI@home
Users can scan the heavens for signs of aliens with this project. The SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) collective effort dates back decades, and since 1999 everyday people have played a major role in listening for evidence of proverbial little green men.
通过这个项目,用户们可以扫描天穹,以寻找外星人的信号。SETI((Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence,寻找外星智慧生命)的寻找外星人的努力从10年前就开始了,从1999以来的每一天,SETI@home上的人们在侦听可能存在的“小绿人”的踪迹的方面扮演了重要的角色。
SETI@home parses data gathered by the giant Arecibo Observatory radio telescope in Puerto Rico. The quarry: certain narrow-bandwidth radio signals not known to occur naturally that, if detected, would provide solid evidence of alien technologies out amongst the stars.
SETI@home处理从位于波多黎各的巨大的阿雷西伯天文台射电天文望远镜上收集到的数据。其努力寻找的目标是未曾发现的特定的短波段射电信号,如果发现了这样的信号,自然而然就是证实外太空中外星科技存在的强有力的证据。
Processing 24 hours of data from Arecibo would take a typical single computer 330-some years, Anderson pointed out. But SETI@home's 120,000 active computers at any given time around the world can comb this data right as it comes in.
“处理在24小时从阿雷西伯上收集的数据需要耗费一台普通的电脑330年左右的时间”Anderson如是说。但是SETI@home上无时无刻都有12万台活跃的计算机遍布世界,这些计算机足以让数据一经接受就立刻被过滤完成。

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发表于 2011-1-4 17:23:39 | 显示全部楼层
PAGE 5

Folding@home
This long-running project launched about a year after SETI@home. Folding@home discovers how proteins get their shape during and after production in our cells. It is this three-dimensional, folded structure that determines the tiny molecule's function, or, in the case of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, malfunction.
这个“马拉松式”的项目在SETI@home启动约1年后开始运行。Folding@home探索蛋白质在细胞内产生后是如何进行构型的。三维构型和折叠的结构决定了蛋白这个微小的分子的功能,以及在某些疾病从,如艾滋海默症(老年痴呆症)和帕金森症等,存在的错误功能。
Though a non-BOINC volunteer computing project, Folding@home operates in much the same way. More than 200,000 active computers achieve a blistering speed of about three petaflops per second. At present, some 73 scientific papers have been published using Folding@home's results.
虽然是一个非BOINC的志愿计算项目,但Folding@home的工作方式大同小异。 超过20万台活跃的计算机组合在一起,达到了大约3千万亿次/秒的猛烈的速度。迄今,Folding@home的结果已经成就了73篇科学论文的发表。
By learning how proteins fold, researchers hope to come with new drugs and therapies to treat a range of illnesses and uncover fundamental insights into biology. Every computer that gets signed up moves the project closer to its goals, Folding@home's website says.
通过了解蛋白质是如何折叠的,研究者希望能够研制出新的药物和疗法,以治疗一系列疾病,并且进一步揭示生物学更深刻的本质。每一台登记运行的电脑都推动这个项目离目标更近了一步,Folding@home的网站如是说。
Other similar protein-folding campaigns include Rosetta@home and POEM@home.
其他类似的蛋白质折叠项目(注:campaigns:战役)包括Rosetta@home和POEM@home

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发表于 2011-1-5 12:34:06 | 显示全部楼层
PAGE 6

Climateprediction.net
Administered out of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, Climateprediction.net describes itself as the "world's largest climate forecasting experiment for the 21st century." As scientific simulations go, climate modeling gobbles up computing power like no other, Anderson said, due to the scale and number of variables in play. "These are giant, insanely complex programs that model every aspect of Earth's climate system," Anderson said.
由英国剑桥大学进行管理的Climateprediction.net(气候预测)将其自己称为“世界上最大的面向21世纪的气候预测实验项目”。在科学模拟的过程中,气候模型同其他的程序完全不同,Anderson说,由于其运行的规模和变量的数目,需要消耗大量的计算力(才能顺利进行)。这些程序是巨大的,极端复杂的,完全模拟了地球气候系统的每一个角落。Anderson如是说。
Climateprediction.net's purview extends over seven projects. These include simulations of geoengineering, such as humankind adding fine particles to the atmosphere to reflect some sunlight, as well as modeling various epochs in history such as the "warm Medieval period."
Climateprediction.net的研究范围扩展到超过7个项目,这些项目包括了地球工程模拟,比如人类将一些细小的颗粒释放到大气中反射一部分太阳光,以及模拟历史上不同的(气候)时期,如“中世纪温暖期”等。
More than 80 million years have been modeled to date, and some 50,000 computers continue to plug away. Early results obtained back in 2005 showed that global average temperature increases over the next century could be much greater – and more devastating – than other smaller models had shown. The findings, published in Nature, influenced the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report issued in late 2007, Anderson said.
到目前为止,Climateprediction.net已经模拟了超过8千万年的气候,同时有5万余台计算机在持续地连接到该项目。2005年早先的模拟结果表明,下一个世纪内的全球的气温的升高程度同其他的小范围的模拟的结果相比,将远高于预料,且具有更大的破坏性。这个发现在Nature杂志上发表,并影响了近期政府间合作组织于2007年发布的关于气候变化的报告内容。Anderson如是说。
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发表于 2011-1-6 10:56:04 | 显示全部楼层
PAGE 7:


Quake-Catcher Network
This BOINC-powered project does not do distributed computing in the number-crunching sense; instead, it acts like a distributed seismometer to detect earthquakes.
这个基于BOINC的项目的特别之处在于,它不是通过分布式计算来处理数据,相反,它构建了一个分布式的检波器,用来预测地震。
Laptop accelerometers, which detect if a laptop has been dropped, can pick up the ground shakes in an earthquake. For desktops, external, USB-compatible sensors are sold at cost for $49 on the project's website.
笔记本电脑的加速计是用来检测笔记本电脑是否意外坠落的,同时也能检测出大地的震动。对于台式机电脑,外置的USB接口的传感器可以在项目的网站上以$49的价格买到。
More than a thousand computers all over the world presently send seismic data in to the project's server. For now, the Quake-Catcher Network is strictly for science, not an early alarm system.
全世界现在每天有1000多台计算机发送地震监控数据到项目服务器。目前为止,Quake-Catcher Network仅仅用于科学目的,并不是一个地震预警系统。
However, the dispersed setup allows for "really rapid transmission of information about earthquake locations and magnitudes," said Elizabeth Cochran, an assistant professor of seismology at the University of California, Riverside, and leader of the project. Down the road, the setup could help inform official earthquake monitoring centers, especially in countries with few full-fledged seismometers in service.
然而,这个分布式设计使得“真正的快速地传输地震位置和强度的信息”成为可能,加州大学河滨分校的地震学助理教授,本项目的负责人Elizabeth Corchran介绍说。一段时间后,这套装置可以帮助通知官方的地震监测中心,特别是在那些只有少量完善的地震传感器的国家。
Having a lot of sensors deployed also increases the odds of narrowing down where a quake's epicenter is located, Anderson noted, "which among other things means you can detect a quake sooner," leading to crucial extra minutes of warning.
部署大量的传感器同时也提升了精确定位震中的可能性,Anderson指出:这或者可以说意味着你可以更早地检测到地震,争取到额外的关键的预警的几分钟时间。
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发表于 2011-1-6 10:58:30 | 显示全部楼层
PAGE 8:

Virtual Prairie
The largest ecological simulation happening today is Virtual Prairie, led by the Universities of Houston and Rennes. It aims to model how competing plant species, from reeds to weeds to shrubs, carve out a living in the flat expanse of Midwestern grasslands. The simulation works through how the plants establish ecosystems and respond to animal foraging, pollution, seasonal variations and more.
至今最大的生态模拟项目称作Virtual Prairie,由休斯顿大学和雷恩大学所领导。这个项目致力于模拟竞争植物种群,从杂草到低矮灌木,是如何在中西部的草原广袤而平坦的土地上扎根求生的。这个模拟将彻底探究植物是如何建立生态系统以及如何应对动物觅食,污染,季节更替及其他的影响的。
But this project isn't just watching grass grow. Project leaders see a number of applications, such as the informing of biofuel harvesting practices, carbon capture to mitigate climate change and the preservation of biodiversity for future generations.
不过这个项目并不是仅仅“放任杂草生长”。项目的领头人们同时关注着其他的一些应用,比如报告获得生物燃料的方法,碳捕获法缓和气候变化,以及为后人保持生物多样性等等。
As of June 2010, some 3,400 active computers loaded with Virtual Prairie were zipping along at a speed of over six teraflops.
截止2010年6月,3400台活跃的运行着Virtual Prairie的计算机正在以超过6万亿次浮点运算的速度“轻快地奔跑着”。
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发表于 2011-1-6 11:53:45 | 显示全部楼层
PAGE 9:

AQUA@home
The prospect of ultra-fast quantum computing has long enraptured computer scientists, physicists and cryptologists, among others. However, successfully building a full-fledged, useful quantum computer someday is likely to still take many years and require a few breakthroughs along the way.
长期以来,一想到“超级快速的量子计算”的未来,诸如计算机科学家、物理学家、密码学家等等的人们就兴奋不已。然而,成功地建立一个功能完善的,有利用价值的量子计算机,不仅需要一些突破性的成果,而且也尚需时日
But when that day arrives, Canada-based D-Wave Systems wants to be ready. With AQUA@home, the company harnesses volunteer computing time to help predict how well certain algorithms might run on quantum computers. Some 3,200 active users with about 6,000 computers at their disposal presently donate processing time to AQUA@home.
但是当这一天到来的时候,加拿大的D-Wave系统公司希望完全做好了准备。使用AQUA@home,这家公司利用志愿计算时间来帮助预测哪些特定的算法能够在量子计算机上运行。大约有3200名活跃的用户带着他们所支配的近6000台计算机正在为AQUA@home贡献处理时间。
Geordie Rose, founder and chief technology officer at D-Wave Systems, said the project is exploring machine learning applications, such as image recognition – a sore spot for computers where humans still whip artificial intelligences.
Geordie Rose, D-Wave系统公司的创始人和首席技术官介绍说,这个项目正在探索机器学习应用程序,比如图像识别这个计算机的痛楚,目前在这方面,人类仍可以轻易打败人工智能技术。
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发表于 2013-5-21 06:50:01 | 显示全部楼层
校序


美女的译文很美,比如,她在译文中使用了涟漪、天穹等富有诗情画意的词。

所以,我也大大地提高了校译标准,不然怎么能显示出俺的水平呢?

点评

只有美女才想的出涟漪、天穹这么富有诗情画意的词,太赞啦  发表于 2013-5-21 10:03
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